A sectional view of an image orthicon is shown in the below figure. It has three main sections: image section, scanning section and electron. Image orthicon definition, a camera tube, more sensitive than the orthicon, in which an electron image generated by a photocathode is focused on one side of a. The image orthicon (10) was developed during World War II to solve some of the problems of its predecessors in the camera-tube family. These included.

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Draw and explain image orthicon camera tube in detail with advantages and disadvantages.

As light strikes the photocathode, electrons are emitted in proportion to the intensity of the light see photoelectric effect.

The first practical iconoscope was constructed in by Sanford Essig, when he accidentally left a silvered mica sheet in the oven too long. Light biasing was a method whereby the photosensitive target was illuminated from a light source just enough that no appreciable output was obtained, but such that a slight increase in light level from the scene was enough to provide discernible output.

Therefore, secondary electrons are emitted from the surface of the isolating material when the electron image reaches the target, and the resulting positive charges are stored directly onto the surface of the isolated material. The vidicon is a storage-type camera tube in which a charge-density pattern is formed by the imaged scene radiation on a photoconductive surface which is then scanned by a beam of low-velocity electrons.

Image orthicon

Cakera Wiley and Sons. This differs from the size of the sensitive area of the target which is typically two thirds of the size of the overall diameter. Compared to Saticons, Plumbicons have much higher resistance to burn-in, and comet and trailing artifacts from bright lights in the shot. Light from the scene to be televised is focused on the photocathode surface by a lens system and the optical image thus formed results in the release of electrons from each point on the photocathode in proportion to the incident light intensity.

For instance, a 6.

Principles of Operation Schematic arrangement of the 4. The Iconoscope, America’s latest television favourite. The size of video camera tubes is simply the overall outside diameter of the glass envelope.

Video camera tube

Early color cameras used the obvious technique of using separate red, green and blue image tubes in conjunction with a color separatora technique lmage in use with 3CCD solid state cameras today. Archived from the original on 31 May Secondary electrons are produced by the impact of the photo-electrons on the target and these are collected by the fine mesh screen which is held at a definite small positive potential with respect to the target.


The mysterious dark “orthicon halo” around bright objects in an IO-captured image is based on the fact that the IO relies on the emission of photoelectrons, but very bright illumination can produce more of them locally than the device can successfully deal with.

While the iconoscope and the intermediate orthicon used capacitance between a multitude of small but discrete light sensitive collectors and an isolated signal plate for reading video information, the image orthicon employed direct charge readings from a continuous electronically charged collector. However, it tends to flare in bright light, causing a dark halo to be seen around the object; this anomaly is referred to as ” blooming ” in the broadcast industry when image orthicon tubes were in operation.

The Newvicon tubes were characterized by camerw light sensitivity.

These reflected electrons return down the cathode ray tube toward the first dynode of the electron multiplier surrounding the electron gun which is at high potential. Zworykin, who describes it at Chicago. This section does not cite any sources. The electron gun structure produces a beam of electrons that is accelerated towards the target. Thanks to the axial magnetic field of the focusing coilthis deflection is not in a straight line, thus when the electrons reach the target they do so perpendicularly avoiding a sideways component.

It was also easier to manufacture and produced a very clear image. Retrieved 29 June Convention date UK application: Any vacuum tube which operates using a focused beam of electrons, ” cathode rays “, is known as a cathode ray tube CRT.

The target is nearly at ground potential with a small positive charge, thus when the electrons reach the target at low speed they are absorbed without ejecting more electrons. The image iconoscope is essentially identical to the super-Emitron, but the target is constructed of a thin layer of isolating material placed on top of a conductive base, the mosaic of metallic orfhicon is missing. Proceedings of the Institute of Radio Engineers.

Encyclopedia of Television, second edition. Although the idea of using color stripe filters over the target was not new, the Trinicon was the only tube to use the primary RGB colors. This is because secondary electrons released from the mosaic of the charge storage plate when the scanning beam sweeps across it orthico be attracted back to the positively charged mosaic, thus neutralizing many of the stored charges.


Each globule is very active photoelectrically and constitutes, to all intents and purposes, a minute individual photoelectric cell”.

Video camera tube – Wikipedia

Inthe EMI engineers Blumlein and McGee filed for patents for television transmitting systems where a charge storage plate was shielded by a pair of special gridsa negative or slightly ortuicon grid lay very close to the plate, and a positive one was placed further away. The method of extracting the color is similar however.

Low-velocity scanning beam tubes have several advantages; there are low levels of spurious signals and high efficiency of conversion of light ortnicon signal, so that the signal output is maximum. The number of reflected electrons is a linear measure of the target’s original positive charge, which, in turn, is a measure of brightness.

Proceedings of the Physical Society. An iconoscope is a camera tube that oorthicon an image on a special ” charge storage ” plate containing a mosaic of electrically isolated photosensitive granules separated from a common plate by a thin layer of isolating material, somewhat analogous to the human eye ‘s retina and its arrangement of photoreceptors.

Archived from the original on 17 August The technique would not work with the baseline vidicon tube because it suffered from the limitation that as the target was fundamentally an insulator, the constant low light level built up a charge which would manifest itself as a form of ‘fogging’.

It has an efficient photocathode that transforms the scene light into an electron image; the latter is then accelerated towards a target specially prepared for the emission of secondary electrons. Davis, the general manager of Westinghouseand Zworykin was asked “to work on something useful”. Originally developed by Toshiba in as chalniconPasecon is a registered trademark of Heimann GmbH from They have excellent resolution compared to image orthicons, but lack the artificially sharp edges of IO tubes, which cause some of the viewing audience to perceive them as softer.

Once it exits the electron gun, its inertia makes the beam move away from the dynode towards the back side of the target. TV and Video Engineering. The resultant ortihcon was immune to most extraneous signal “crosstalk” from other parts of the target, and could yield extremely detailed images.